International Perfusion Association


Randomized Controlled Trial of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Children Having Cardiac Surgery

Background: Children undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) and cardiac dysfunction. Opportunity exists in protecting end organ function with remote ischemic preconditioning. We hypothesize this intervention lessens kidney and myocardial injury.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of remote ischemic preconditioning in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Pre-specified end points are change in creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, development of AKI, B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin I at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h post separation from bypass.

Results: There were 45 in the treatment and 39 patients in the control group, median age of 3.5 and 3.8 years, respectively. There were no differences between groups in creatinine, cystatin C, eGFR at each time point. There was a trend for a larger rate of decrease, especially for cystatin C (p = 0.042) in the treatment group but the magnitude was small. AKI was observed in 21 (54%) of control and 16 (36%) of treatment group (p = 0.094). Adjusting for baseline creatinine, the odds ratio for AKI in treatment versus control was 0.31 (p = 0.037); adjusting for clinical characteristics, the odds ratio was 0.34 (p = 0.056). There were no differences in natriuretic peptide or troponin levels between groups. All secondary end points of clinical outcomes were not different.

Conclusions: There is suggestion of RIPC delivering some kidney protection in an at-risk pediatric population. Larger, higher risk population studies will be required to determine its efficacy. Trial registration and date: NCT01260259; 2021.

Keywords: Cardiothoracic surgery; Children; Congenital heart disease; Kidney injury; Remote ischemic preconditioning.

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