International Perfusion Association


Plasma Hyperosmolality as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Patients

Introduction: The study objective was to investigate whether a Ringer’s acetate based priming solution with addition of Mannitol and sodium concentrate increases the risk of cardiac surgery associated kidney injury (CSA-AKI).

Methods: This is a double blind, prospective randomized controlled trial from a single tertiary teaching hospital in Sweden including patients aged ≥65 years (n = 195) admitted for routine cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients in the study group received Ringer’s acetate 1000 mL + 400 mL Mannitol (60 g) + sodium chloride 40 mL (160 mmol) and heparin 2 mL (10 000 IU) 966 mOsmol (n = 98), while patients in the control group received Ringer’s acetate 1400 mL + heparin 2 mL (10 000 IU), 388 mOsmol (n = 97) as pump prime. Acute kidney injury was analysed based on the Kidney Disease Improving Outcomes (KDIGO 1-3) definition.

Results: The overall incidence of CSA-AKI (KDIGO stage 1) was 2.6% on day 1 in the ICU and 5.6% on day 3, postoperatively. The serum creatinine level did not show any postoperative intergroup differences, when compared to baseline preoperative values. Six patients in the Ringer and five patients in the Mannitol group developed CSA-AKI (KDIGO 1-3), all with glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. These patients showed significantly higher plasma osmolality levels compared to preoperative values. Hyperosmolality together with patient age and the duration of the surgery were independent risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (KDIGO 1-3).

Conclusions: The use of a hyperosmolar prime solution did not increase the incidence of postoperative CSA-AKI in this study, while high plasma osmolality alone increased the associated risk by 30%. The data suggests further examination of plasma hyperosmolality as a relative risk factor of CSA-AKI.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; heart-lung machine; osmolar concentration; priming solution.

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