International Perfusion Association


Outcomes of Prophylactic Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Objectives: The objective of this Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022384192) registered systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether prophylactic peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion at the time of pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with improved short-term outcomes.

Data sources: Databases search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library completed in April 2021 and updated October 2023.

Study selection: Two reviewers independently completed study selection, data extraction, and bias assessment. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of children (≤ 18 yr) undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. We evaluated use of prophylactic PD catheter versus not.

Data extraction: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, as well as secondary short-term outcomes. Pooled random-effect meta-analysis odds ratio with 95% CI are reported.

Data synthesis: Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, including four RCTs. The non-PD catheter group received supportive care that included diuretics and late placement of PD catheters in the ICU. Most study populations included children younger than 1 year and weight less than 10 kg. Cardiac surgery was most commonly used for arterial switch operation. In-hospital mortality was reported in 13 studies; pooled analysis showed no association between prophylactic PD catheter placement and in-hospital mortality. There were mixed results for ICU length of stay and time to negative fluid balance, with some studies showing shortened duration associated with use of prophylactic PD catheter insertion and others showing no difference. Overall, the studies had high risk for bias, mainly due to small sample size and lack of generalizability.

Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we have failed to demonstrate an association between prophylactic PD catheter insertion in children and infants undergoing cardiac surgery and reduced in-hospital mortality. Other relevant short-term outcomes, including markers of fluid overload, require further study.

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