International Perfusion Association


Hemodynamic Monitoring In The Cardiac Surgical Patient: Comparison of Three Arterial Catheters

Objective: Systemic systolic (SAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressure monitoring is the cornerstone in hemodynamic management of the cardiac surgical patient, and the radial artery is the most common site of catheter placement. The present study compared 3 different arterial line procedures. It is hypothesized that a 20-G 12.7- cm catheter inserted into the radial artery will be equal to a 20-G 12.7- cm angiocath placed in the brachial artery, and superior to a 20-G 5.00 cm angiocath placed in the radial artery.

Design: A prospective randomized control study was performed.

Setting: Single academic university hospital.

Participants: Adult patients ≥18 years old undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Interventions: After approval by the Rhode Island Hospital institutional review board, a randomized prospective control study to evaluate 3 different peripheral intraarterial catheter systems was performed: (1) Radial Short (RS): 20-G 5- cm catheter; (2) Radial Long (RL): 20-G 12- cm catheter; and (3) Brachial Long (BL): 20-G 12- cm catheter.

Measurements and results: Gradients between central aortic and peripheral catheters (CA-P) were compared and analyzed before CPB and 2 and 10 minutes after separation from CPB. The placement of femoral arterial lines and administration of vasoactive medications were recorded. After exclusions, 67 BL, 61 RL, and 66 RS patients were compared. Before CPB, CA-P SAP and MAP gradients were not significant among the 3 groups. Two minutes after CPB, the CA-P SAP gradient was significant for the RS group (p = 0.005) and insignificant for BL (p = 0.47) and RL (p = 0.39). Two-group analysis revealed that CA-P SAP gradients are similar between BL and RL (p = 0.84), both of which were superior to RS (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). At 10 minutes after CPB, the CA-P SAP gradient for RS remained significant (p = 0.004) and similar to the gradient at 2 minutes. The CA-P SAP gradients increased from 2 to 10 minutes for BL (p = 0.13) and RL (p = 0.06). Two minutes after CPB, the CA-P MAP gradients were significant for the BL (p = 0.003), RL (p < 0.0001), and RS (p < 0.0001) groups. Two-group analysis revealed that the CA-P MAP gradients were lower for the BL group compared with the RL (p = 0.054) and RS (p< 0.05) groups. Ten minutes after CPB, the CA-P MAP gradients in the RL and RS groups remained significant (p < 0.0001) and both greater than the BL group (p = 0.002). A femoral arterial line was placed more frequently in the RS group (8/66 = 12.1%) than in the RL group (3/61 = 4.9%) and the BL group (2/67 = 3.0%). Vasopressin was administered significantly more frequently in the RS group.

Conclusion: Regarding CA-P SAP gradients, the RL group performed equally to the BL group, both being superior to RS. Regarding CA-P MAP gradients, BL was superior to RL and RS. Clinically, femoral line placement and vasopressin administration were fewer for the BL and RL groups when compared with the RS group. This study demonstrated the benefits of a long (12.7 cm) 20- G angiocath placed in the radial artery.

Keywords: arterial catheter; brachial; gradient; radial; systolic blood pressure.

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