International Perfusion Association


Cardiopulmonary Bypass Management and Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients

Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ensures tissue oxygenation during cardiac surgery. New technology allows continuous registration of CPB variables during the operation. The aim of the present investigation was to study the association between CPB management and the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: This observational study based on prospectively registered data included 2661 coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve patients operated during 2016-2020. Individual patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes collected from the SWEDEHEART registry were merged with CPB variables automatically registered every 20 s during CPB. Associations between CPB variables and AKI were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for patient characteristics.

Results: In total, 387 patients (14.5%) developed postoperative AKI. After adjustments, longer time on CPB and aortic cross-clamp, periods of compromised blood flow during aortic cross-clamp time, and lower nadir hematocrit were associated with the risk of AKI, while mean blood flow, bladder temperature, central venous pressure, and mixed venous oxygen saturation were not. Patient characteristics independently associated with AKI were advanced age, higher body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 or >90 mL/min/m2 , and preoperative hemoglobin concentration below or above the normal sex-specific range.

Conclusions: To reduce the risk of AKI after cardiac surgery, aortic clamp time and CPB time should be kept short, and low hematocrit and periods of compromised blood flow during aortic cross-clamp time should be avoided if possible.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass.

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