International Perfusion Association


Alterations to Kidney Physiology during Cardiopulmonary Bypass-A Narrative Review of the Literature and Practical Remarks

Introduction: According to different authors, cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) incidence can be as high as 20-50%. This complication increases postoperative morbidity and mortality and impairs long-term kidney function in some patients. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding alterations to renal physiology during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to discuss possible nephroprotective strategies for cardiac surgeries. Relevant sections: Systemic and renal circulation, Vasoactive drugs, Fluid balance and Osmotic regulation and Inflammatory response.

Conclusions: Considering the available scientific evidence, it is concluded that adequate kidney perfusion and fluid balance are the most critical factors determining postoperative kidney function. By adequate perfusion, one should understand perfusion with proper oxygen delivery and sufficient perfusion pressure. Maintaining the fluid balance is imperative for a normal kidney filtration process, which is essential for preserving the intra- and postoperative kidney function.

Future directions: The review of the available literature regarding kidney function during cardiac surgery revealed a need for a more holistic approach to this subject.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; clinical physiology.

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